Thursday, December 5, 2019

Barclays Bank - Regulatory Framework Of Financial Reporting

Question: Discuss the accounting policies of Barclays Bank Plc. Answer: Introduction Barclays is a British multinational financial and banking administrations which has its headquarters within London. The bank has widespread operations in investment and wholesale banking, retail, wealth management, credit cards emulated by mortgage lending. It has operations in atleast 50 nations along with divisions and subsidiaries having almost 48 million clients. In accordance with 31 December 2011 Barclays had complete resources of US$2.42 trillion, the seventh-biggest of any bank around the world (Zineldin, 2012). This particular bank is sorted out inside these business groups: Business and Retail Banking, corporate and investment banking, wealth and investment management. The Corporate and Investment Banking, Wealth and Investment Management group embodies 3 specialties units: Corporate banking; Investment banking and Investment and wealth management. The Business and retail Banking group incorporate 4 specialties units: Business banking and Africa Retail (counting Absa Group); Europe Retail and Business Banking; and UK Retail; Barclaycard (Mastercard and advance procurement); and last but not the least, the business banking (Barclays, 2014). As a centered global bank, Barclays offers an incorporated diverse range of services and products across retail banks, investment banking, wealth management and corpoarte banking. They serve people, little and expansive organizations, enterprises, foundations and governments. Barclays tries to fulfill the needs of their clients and customers by providing a balanced value within an extensive variety of products and services and in this manner convey a smoother cash flow and effective returns. Then again, they don't try to offer all things to all individuals. The competitive advantage of Barclays emerges from the diversity and scale of their business and the quality, relationships and character of their people. The investments within the subsidiaries incorporate Absa Group Limited that is located in South Africa, Barclaycard, Barclays Africa, Barclays Croatia, Barclays France, Barclays India, Barclays Investment Bank, Barclays Private Clients International, Barclays Morocco, Barclay Pakistan, Barclays Partner Finance and etc. Regulatory Framework of Financial Reporting The integrity within the financial statements is supported by the control environment relating to the formation of the annual reports. In such manner, the Committee gives priority to the considertation of the consequences of the evaluations Groups turnbull, its Sarbanes-Oxley s404 inward process related to internal control and the unlucky deficiency of any evidences related to misrepresentation identifying with matters related to financial reporting (Zeff, 2010). The Committee likewise fulfilled itself that there were relevant processes related to verification and standards by which senior administration validated an exactness of the genuine content and a procedure to back up the representations to the external auditors made by the board. It did this by developing arguments over the yields from the Disclosure Committee's audit of the annual statements, incorporating an evaluation of disclosure controls and methodologies, and by requesting that the administration should make a clarifi cation and proof the premise on which the representations were made to the auditors (Garrett, 2014). The Disclosure Committee is an administration advisory group, led by the Director of the Group Finance, who makes a consideration of the content, exactness and disclosure tone, reporting its decisions to the Board Audit Committee and Executive Group Committee. The Committee also made a consideration of the reports from the inward and external auditor identifying with these viewpoints. Likewise, the control isssues in the IT environment are also discussed by the Committee, which are liable to plans related to remediation. Extra measures have been taken, including compensation controls, to guarantee that the controls over the frameworks supporting the money related reporting methods can be depended upon (Graham, 2010). The Committee was fulfilled, given the consequences of the testing of the controls related to compensating, that the respectability of the financial control environment was relevant. One other real component of the process related to financial reporting incorporates the key estimates and assumptions or judgments that definitely must be made. In front of publication of the half-year and entire year comes about, the Committee makes an analysis in detail the principle assumptions and judgements made by administration. There is an additional consideration as to whether, in those ranges where the policy is associated to the accounting decisions may be made, suitable approaches had been chosen. The prudent judgement judgments have been made as to financial reporting, that the financial statements give a genuine and reasonable perspective of the financial position of the company and that the analysis is made on an independent basis by the auditors in the interest of their owners is both effective and objective. Likewise, the Committee also discusses about control issues in the IT environment, which are liable to plans related to remediation (Dunn, 2013). The Disclosure Committee is an administration advisory group, led by the Group Finance Director, which considers the content, exactness and tone of the disclosures, reporting its decisions to the Group Executive Committee and the Board Audit Committee. The Committee additionally considered reports from the inward and external auditor identifying with these viewpoints. Accounting Policies The carrying value of goodwill is determined as per IFRS 3 Business Combinations IAS 36 Impairment of Assets. The Goodwill evolves on the acquisition of joint ventures and associates, subsidiaries, and signifies to the overabundance of the FV i.e. purchase faire value and acquisition thought over the FV of the Group's share of the assets gained and the liabilities and unexpected liabilities accepted on the date of the obtaining. Goodwill is looked into every year for impedance, or all the more much of the time when there are signs that impairment may have happened. This is further illustrated below: The test includes contrasting the carrying value of goodwill and the present estimation of the pretax CFs i.e. cash flows, marked down at an interest rate that mirrors the innate risks, of the (CGU) i.e. cash generation unit to which the goodwill relates, or the fair value of Cash Generation Unit if it is higher. If any other company within the same industry is to be compared in accordance with the impairment of assets and goodwill, then the Royal Bank of Scotland can be a better option here (Barclays , 2013). The intangible assets incorporate goodwill emerging on the acquisition of joint ventures and subsidiaries. Goodwill on the acquisition of a subsidiary is the overabundance of the FVof the transferred consideration, the FV of any current interest for the subsidiary and the measure of any non-controlling interest measured either at its share of the subsidiary's net resources over the Group's interest for the net FV of the subsidiary's identifiable resources, liabilities and unfor eseen liabilities. Goodwill emerges on the acquisition of a joint venture when the investment cost surpasses the share of the group of the net fair value of the joint venture's identifiable resources and liabilities. Goodwill is measured at starting cost less any resulting losses impairment. Goodwill emerging on the acquisition of associates is incorporated inside their carrying amounts. The increase or loss on the disposal of joint venture, associate and subsidiary incorporates the carrying value of any related goodwill. The internally generated goodwill and brands is written off when they are incurred. Direct expenses identifying with the development of inward utilize a software that are promoted once specialized plausibility and financial feasibility have been made. These expenses incorporate finance, the expenses of materials and administrations, and specifically attributable overheads. Capitalization of expenses stops when the product is fit for working as proposed (Clark, 2012 ). Amid and after improvement, accumulated expenses are surveyed for disability against the advantages that the product is required to produce. Expenses brought about before the foundation of specialized feasibility and financial practicality are expensed as acquired similar to every single preparing cost and general overheads. The expenses of licenses to utilize PC programming that are relied upon to create economic advantages past one year also gets capitalized. Financial Instruments The financial instruments of the company include Corporate bonds, Government Bonds, Equities, Asset backed securities, Commercial real estate loans etc. The financial risks faced by the company include the following: A credit risk is the measure of potential for default that is intrinsic in a given extension of credit or debt investment. A bank or a financial specialist in different sorts of bonds conveys a level of credit risk on any conductance of transaction. Evaluating the level of risk included is fundamental before finishing any sort of lending or investment transaction Funding risk is the likelihood that a business may not have entry to the financing it needs at a moderate rate. Regularly, a strategies for success to utilize a blend of equity and credit financing to finance its operations. The expense of financing is the interest that the organization needs to pay to secure the external funds. A business can just envision the future interest rate on a wellspring of funds. The risk that the credit business may change and funds get to be more lavish is the subsidizing risk in a business' financing arrangement (Chisnall, 2012). Market risk is the normal risk connected with the estimation of a group of assets or ventures. A speculation's worth is liable to the financial changes and events of the marketplace. Hence, huge positive or negative changes in the business sector might seriously affect the estimation of investments or assets held by organizations or people. A case of this on a vast scale is the U.S. lodging rise of 2005-2008; sub-prime home loans kept in touch with people not able to reimburse the credits conveyed high hazard for loan specialists. The bubble burst that gets to be unsustainable, setting off a major financial collapse in the mortgage and banking industries. Measures The following measures were taken by Barclays for managing the risk mentioned above. Asked for particular reports and analysis on these matters assessed the potential effect on financing expenses and streams of a credit rating agency minimization, given the loss of sovereign support scoring and potential administration activities to keep up the liquidity scope Assessed the potential effect on planned deposit balance of an increment in interest rates and accessible administration activities. Followed advancement against target capital and influence degrees and accessible administration activities to accomplish the target, debating normal reports from Barclays' Treasurer. Evaluated the quality of risk set up to guarantee that growth remains inside the risk appetite. Accounting policies of the company to recognise post-employment benefits The incentives for an employee incorporate shares and shares option, and also offering representatives the chance to purchase shares on positive terms. The expense associated with representative services got in admiration of the shares or offer alternatives conceded is perceived in accordance with the pay explanation over the period that employees give services, by and large the period between the date the grant is allowed or advised and the date for vesting of the options or shares. The general expense of the award is computed utilizing the quantity of shares and options anticipated that would vest and the FV of the shares or alternatives at the grant date(Barclays, 2014). The quantity of options and shares anticipated that would vest considers the probability that service and performance terms that are incorporated in the conditions of the award will be met. Inability to meet the non-vesting condition is dealt with as a cancellation, bringing about a speeding up of recognition of the expense of the employee services. The reasonable estimation of shares is the business sector value administering on the date of grant, now and again changed in accordance with transfer-ability restrictions. The FV of granted options is resolved utilizing alternative models being estimated to gauge the quantities of shares prone to vesting. These consider the options exercise price, the current offer value, the rate of interest that is risk free, the normal instability of the offer cost over the life of the alternative and other significant components. Economic situations that must be met in place for the award to vest are likewise reflected in the FV of the award, just li ke some other non-vesting conditions , for example, keeping on making installments into a share based scheme related to savings. Different employee benefits trusts secured by the Group hold shares in Barclays PLC to meet commitments under the Barclays offer based installment plans. The total number of Barclays shares held in these employee benefit trusts at 31 December 2014 was 5.2 million (2013: 3.2 million). Profit rights have been waived on these shares. The aggregate market value of the shares held in trust in view of the year end share price of 2.43 (2013: 2.72) was 12.6m (2013: 8.7m). This is further illustrated below: References Barclays , 2013. Barclays Annual Report 2013, s.l.: Barclays. Barclays, 2014. Barclays Annual Report 2014, s.l.: Barclays. Chisnall, P., 2012. The way ahead on financial instruments: the banks have their say. Balance Sheet, 9(4), pp. 11-21. Clark, K. N., 2012. The Effects of Sarbanes Oxley on Current Financial Reporting Standards, s.l.: Liberty University. Dunn, P., 2013. The Impact of Insider Power on Fraudulent Financial Reporting. Journal of Management, 30(3), pp. 397-412. Garrett, J., 2014. Trust and Financial Reporting Quality. Journal of Accounting Research, 52(5), pp. 1087-1125. Graham, J. R., 2010. The economic implications of corporate financial reporting. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 40(5), pp. 3-73. Zeff, S. A., 2010. Some obstacles to global financial reporting comparability and convergence at a high level of quality. The British Accounting Review, 39(2), pp. 290-302. Zineldin, M., 2012. Bank strategic positioning and some determinants of bank selection. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 14(6), pp. 12-22.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Animal Testing Research Paper free essay sample

Abstract With animal testing, the killing and harming innocent animals, being around for centuries with little change, will exploiting the facts that the public does not know about, help put an end to all the product and medication testing on animals? Introduction Animal testing has been around for centuries, when it really should be one of those â€Å"cruel memories† of things we have done in the past, but will not let in happen again in the future. Rats, Mice, Rabbits, and a whole slew of other animals are forced to endure massive quantities of testing substances or endure pain by having harmful chemicals applied to their bodies, even though the testing may have nothing to do with anything relatable for human use. My purpose for this subject is to let people think twice about buying a product, or hopefully helping put this inhuman testing to an end. When did animal testing originate? The history of animal testing goes back to the writings of the Greeks in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Testing Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Aristotle (384-322 BC) and Erasistratus (304-250 BC) were among the first group of people to perform experiments on living animals. A physician in 2nd-century Rome, dissected pigs and goats and is known as the â€Å"father of vivisection†, when his real name is Galen. Avenzoar, whom is also a physician but of Arabic, also practiced dissection in 12th-century Moorish Spain, and introduced animal testing as an acceptable experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients. (Cohen Loew, 2013) What is animal testing? Animal testing, a phrase that most people unsure of exactly what is involved but have heard it before. There are many names, animal testing, animal experimentation or animal research, it all refers to the experimentation carried out on animals. Its main purpose in why it is used, is to assess the safety and effectiveness of everything from medication to cosmetics. We also use it to help find a better understanding of how the human body works. Supporters believe it is a necessary practice and obliteration to animals for our bettering and the deaths of the animals are well worth the cause. Then there are those opposed to animal testing because they believe it involves the torture and suffering of innocent animals (Ian Murnaghan BSc (hons), 2011) Who does animal testing affect? Animal testing affects everyone in the modern world today. It is primarily used to help save lives. The testing is performed so that there is a better understanding of what reactions drugs may have, so that we can figure out which drugs help which diseases, as well as observe how certain drugs affect conditions such as pregnancy and other side effects they may cause like cancer. Another part of animal testing is to help promote a product or to understand the effects of those products and the percentile of which those effects may cause. This might include testing makeup, lotions, or food products. Animal testing main support is from those people that believe the animals in our world today, are a close link to humans, and therefore allow them to be tested to see what effects drugs, products, or foods have on our society. A second opinion humans have, is that animal testing is a cruel and inhumane, torturous act, and should not be done to anyone or anything, no matter what the benefit might be to the human species (Contributor, 2012). Animal Testing Funds The United States government spends up to the sum of $14. 5 billion in a year in any research involving experimentation on animals. These experiments will often lead to death or unwarranted consequences for the animals involved. Some projects are funded for decades by the siphoning of the US taxpayers dollars and resulting in cruel treatment and deaths of an unfathomable number of animals. About 47% of research grants have an animal research-based component according to NIH, National Institutes of Health, and documents. The number has been very consistent over the last decade (Newcomer, 2013). Where do companies get money for testing? Many companies today get their funding for research from the NIH. Other companies also receiving money from the NIH are numerous colleges around the U. S. A. whom are primarily receiving grants to experiment on animals. The NIH is a biomedical research facility located in Bethesda, Maryland. They are part of the United States department of Health and Human Services. These agencies are primarily used to do biomedical and health-related research. NIH uses the Intramural Research Program to conducts scientific research through. 80% of the NIH funding, is used as research grants to outside researchers. They give approximately 500,000 grants to an approximate 325,000 researchers that consists of more than 3000 institutions. In 2010 alone, NIH spent around $10. 7 billion on just clinical research. On top of that, they also spent $7. 4 billion on genetics-related research, $6. 0 billion on prevention research, $5. 8 billion on cancer research, and $5. 7 billion on biotechnology research which almost all include the torture of other species on Earth (Health, 2013). How much does it cost? Each year in the United States, there are approximately 100 million animals that are tormented and killed in experiments conducted to better humans. Much of this cruelty is highly supported by the National Institutes of Health, and the United State government, since the NIH is a department of the government. The NIH allocates a minimum of 40% of its annual research budget just towards animal experimentation. Based on the NIH’s 2010 budget, this accounts for more the $16 billion in US taxpayer money alone (PETA, 2013). Substitutes for Animal Testing There are nearly 50 different alternative methods and testing strategies that have been developed, validated and/or accepted by international regulatory authorities. These non-animal methods usually take less time to complete then using the crude, archaic methods animal testing that they meant to replace. In addition, these methods cost only a fraction of what animal experiments burn through, cash wise, and are not affected by a species differences from humans that make applying test results to humans difficult or impossible (PETA, Alternatives to Animal Testin, 2013). Corrositex Testing Corrositex is a non-animal alternative toxicology test. Although this is not a classical â€Å"in vitro† style test, Corrositex uses a synthetic membrane-based detection system to determine the UN packing group classification of chemicals, consumer products, or other hazardous materials. The results, expressed as a break-through time, correlate well with rabbit dermal corrosively tests. In the Corrositex testing system, a glass vial filled with a chemical detection fluid and is capped by a proprietary bio-barrier membrane. This membrane is designed to mimic the effect of corrosives on living skin. Corrositex measures the time required for a test article to pass through a hydrated collagen matrix and supporting filter membrane (Corrositex, 2010). Technological Advancements The NIH has recognized that animal models do not always accurately predict a drug efficacy in people, and they are starting to support the generation of more reliable and predictive models. The use of different human cell types, in series of combinations, will help generate micro-sized physiological systems which can â€Å"talk to each other† and better address the biological complexities of whole living organisms. This â€Å"human body chip† technology would start to allow scientists to look for specific profiles in cells and would help identify human safe compounds to allow testing on people. This technology represents significant advantages over animal models because it relies on human cells which is more like what they are going to be applied to then the use of a completely different species, and is more likely to be predictive of what happens in people in the product or drugs current form (Society, n. d. ). What happens during testing? The government describes an animal experiment as a â€Å"procedure† that is ‘likely to cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. ’ Many experiments cause extreme suffering, often to the point of the animal’s death. Even when they are not being experimented on, animals suffer stress in laboratories where they are typically kept in barren containers or kennels, often in solitary confinement. After the animals have been used in experiments, they are usually killed to prevent being released and causing an evolutionary process in the wild that was created in the lab (Aid, 2013). Killings Injuries According the U. S. Department of Agriculture, in 2006 there were about 670,000 animals that were used in procedures which did not include more than a momentary pain or distress. About 420,000 were used in procedures in which pain or distress was relieved by anesthesia, while there were 84,000 which were used in studies that would cause pain or distress that would not be relieved. In the UK, research projects are classified as mild, moderate, and substantial which is measured in terms of the suffering that they, the researchers conducting the study, say they may cause. There is also a fourth category of â€Å"unclassified†, which means the animal was anesthetized and killed without recovering consciousness, according to researchers (Ryder, 2013). Subjected to horrible unsafe procedures Research reveals that only 5% to 25% of the animal tests and human results are agreeable! Most of the drugs passed by animal tests are discarded due to the fact that they are useless to humans. The conditions under which the animals are subjected to these human experimentations, have caused tumors in rodents, while the animal test results were declared to be of little relevance for humans! The only explanation being offered for this declaration, is the mere fact that there are anatomical and physiological differences between animals and humans. It is important to note that even though animals are almost always used in cancer research, they never get the human form of cancer which also affects membranes like the lungs. With all that research being done that only yield maybe 5% success, almost 9% of the anesthetized animals in the laboratory die. These animals have a better chance of dying then actually helping us develop something successful. Most medical experts agree that data from animal test cannot be extrapolated safely to human patients without any altercations to the drugs (Buzzle, 2013). Companies using and not using animal testing There are a lot of companies that test on animals that we buy from every day. Some of these companies are 3M, Air Wick, Almay, Band-Aid, Blue Buffalo, Febreze, and the list goes on. There are some companies though that do not test on animals such as Abercrombie Fitch, Absolute Green, Aloe Vera of America, and more. It seems like all the companies we know and buy from use some form of animal testing for their product, and yet there are others companies that we have not have hardly heard of, don’t test on animals. Companies use the warning labels saying â€Å"animal tested† Animal testing by manufacturers seeking to market new products may be used to establish product safety. In some cases, after considering available alternatives, companies determine that animal testing is necessary to assure the safety of their product or ingredient. FDA supports and adheres the provisions of applicable laws regulations, and policies the governing animal testing. FDA supports the developments and uses of alternatives to whole-animal testing, as well as adherence to the most humane methods available with the limits of scientific capabilities when animals are used for testing the safety of cosmetic products (FDA, 2006). Types of animals being tested on, and what is tested on them Researchers use many different types of animals, mice, rabbits, dogs, ferrets, and fish to name a few. The type of animal selected for study often depends solely depends on a combination of factors; previous research involving that animal type, scientific relevance, accessibility, and practical aspects of implementation of the product or item being tested. Government agencies also require that any drugs used in humans needs to be tested in at least two different types of animals, one of which is not able to be a rodent. The reason is that a drug can have very different effects on different species of animals (Nordin, 2009). All the animals used in testing/studies Right now, millions of mice, rats, rabbits, primates, cats, dogs, and other animals are locked inside cold, barren cages in an unfathomable number of laboratories across the country and even the world. Exact numbers are not available because mice, rats, birds, and cold-blooded animals- who make up over 95% of creatures used in experiments, are not covered by even the minimal protections of the Animal Welfare Act and therefore go uncounted (PETA, Animal Testing 101, 2013). Types of products used on animals during testing Mice and rats are forced to inhale toxic fumes, dogs are force-fed pesticides, and rabbits have corrosive chemicals rubbed onto their skin and eyes. Many of these tests are not even required by law, and have often produced inaccurate or misleading results that were pointless towards the end affect when the results had to be tossed and started over for being inaccurate towards the desired end result. Even if a product harms animals, it can still be marketed to consumers. Cruel and deadly toxicity tests are also conducted as a part of the massive regulatory testing programs that often funded by USA taxpayers’ money without them even knowing (PETA, Animal Testing 101, 2013). Conclusion Animal testing should not be something that is taken lightly, where as innocent animals are being tested with harmful products, and it is not fair to them. With our advancements in technologies every day, why are we still using innocent animals to test our products on which in turn may not even give us the results needed or give us false results which makes the tests of those animals useless and obsolete? With people knowing what many of these animals go through, would they sign their own pets up to go through that? Having a heart on this issue is what will end it, animals have lives, should be able to live it in their nature desired ways that is unaffected by humans.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

5 Adjective Stacks, and How to Level Them

5 Adjective Stacks, and How to Level Them 5 Adjective Stacks, and How to Level Them 5 Adjective Stacks, and How to Level Them By Mark Nichol When a noun stack a precarious pileup of nouns is itself used to modify yet another noun, it is transformed into an adjective stack, which is just as hostile to clarity. The keyword in this case is relax: Shift the anchoring noun to precede the stack, and introduce prepositions as needed. (And insert hyphens to link words in phrasal adjectives). 1. â€Å"The lack of a secure transfer may hamper computer security incident response efforts.† The phrase â€Å"computer security incident response efforts† is just too complex: The formula for a solution is â€Å"The lack of a secure transfer may hamper efforts to respond to computer-security incidents, but â€Å"efforts to respond† is a case of a smothered verb; responses will do: â€Å"The lack of a secure transfer may hamper responses to computer-security incidents.† 2. â€Å"The company has vast experience providing information-systems security-program management support.† This sentence, with a five-word modifying phrase, is a formidable challenge, but just break it down: The noun is support, so relocate that immediately after the verb and follow it with the appropriate preposition. But â€Å"information-systems security-program management† is still unwieldy, so rinse and repeat: After the preposition, insert â€Å"program management† and another preposition, followed by the remaining phrasal adjective â€Å"security program† and the new anchoring noun, security: â€Å"The company has vast experience providing support for program management in information-systems security.† 3. â€Å"The Hong Kong artist revolutionized the Asian toy collectors’ market.† It’s unclear whether the market in question is for collectors of Asian toys or toy collectors who are Asian. Assuming that the former option is correct, when you relocate market to follow the verb, move collectors’ with it, then retain the adjective-noun pairing â€Å"Asian toys†: â€Å"The Hong Kong artist revolutionized the collectors’ market for Asian toys.† 4. â€Å"They met on behalf of the proposed redwood national park idea.† A revision of this sentence involves transforming the adjective proposed to the noun proposal and jettisoning the noun idea in favor of the verb create. However, while the new version â€Å"They met on behalf of the proposal to create a national park in the redwoods† is clearer than the original, it’s too wordy: Try simplifying it to â€Å"They met to discuss creating a national park in the redwoods.† 5. â€Å"Seventy-five-year-old US Supreme Court chief justice William Rehnquist was appointed by Ronald Reagan.† This style of adjective stacking, in which readers wade through a phalanx of descriptive terms to get to a person’s name, is more common in journalism than in other forms of writing, but no matter where it appears, it’s ripe for relaxation. Sometimes it’s appropriate to split the stack: â€Å"Seventy-five-year-old William Rehnquist, chief justice of the Supreme Court, was appointed by Ronald Reagan.† Often, however, it’s best to place the name the anchoring noun first, and let all the other information fall where it may: â€Å"William Rehnquist, 75, chief justice of the Supreme Court, was appointed by Ronald Reagan.† (This treatment of age is according to The Associated Press Stylebook, the guideline of record for American journalism, which generally spells out only numbers below ten. In another context, the subject’s age, spelled out unless it’s 101 or more, might be mentioned in a subsequent sentence or even omitted.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Exquisite AdjectivesHow Long Should a Paragraph Be?Capitalizing Titles of People and Groups

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Brent Staples, just walk on by Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Brent Staples, just walk on by - Essay Example Somehow, the author expresses his surprises about the sweeping generalizations superficially formulated for Blacks; and some are even the most non-sense ever. He conveys about the inability of the Whites to live peacefully and soundly with the Blacks; he conveys about the Whites unwillingness to stop and think about the freedom that makes America a new melting pot of races; the segregation that guards the possibility of openness between the two races so the Whites always feel troubled of the Blacks. The essay touches on three themes: the undying repercussions of segregation, discrimination, and the White’s traditionally ascribed fear over the Blacks. The author speaks in a personal point of view. He is black, which is quite clear. He uses his own experiences in order to corroborate his claims about how Blacks are always mistakenly referred to as the â€Å"bad† people of the society. He starts by describing Blacks being mistakenly thought of as wicked people. This wickedness even comes in an assorted fashion: thug, burglar, a constant source of fright. This, in some way, suggests of the direness of the White’s fear. The author uses his personal experience of a young woman whom he describes as â€Å"white, well-dressed† and young at her early twenties (Staples, â€Å"Just Walk on By†). Upon seeing him at a discreet distance, the woman scampered seriously. It is valid to surmise that they are strangers to each other but where did the fear of the woman come from? Seen this way, there has been a superficial generalization of Blacks as a threat or a danger. Where did these fresh Whites get their notion of Blacks as frightening? The Whites would always refer to the history between the two races: Whites being the more educated, superior ones while the Blacks remain slaves. In the later passages, the author uses the word â€Å"thunk† four times. This is an onomatopoeia that subtly refers to how the Whites

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Modern Philosophy Final Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Modern Philosophy Final - Assignment Example With regard to this question, I at least know with certainty that such things may exist, in as far as they constitute the object of the pure mathematics, since, regarding them in this aspect, I can conceive them clearly and distinctly† (Descartes 111). Descartes comes to know that he gains knowledge of material objects through sense perception, but since sense perception is by nature, deceptive, how can Descartes prove that material objects exist independent of his mind? Herein, he uses the process of elimination to find out what causes his ideas of material bodies, and whether they can exist independent of his mind. In doing so, he first claims that he cannot be the cause of such material bodies, for it would go against his nature and freewill as a thinking substance. The cogito proves only that he exists as a thinking substance, but it does prove anything about his body. In addition, God cannot be the cause either, for these ideas I have of material bodies are mere adventitio us ideas, which are based on sense perception, which are by nature, deceptive. He now knows that God is no deceiver. Therefore, material objects exist insofar as the idea he has of such objects is caused by the objects themselves. As Descartes claims, â€Å"nothing was so likely to occur to my mind as the supposition that the objects were similar to the ideas which they caused† (113). Thus, material objects exist independent of his mind, since its cause must have as much reality to its effect. However, this does not mean that material objects exist as his senses tell them to be. So what then is the true nature of material objects? Herein, Descartes observed a piece of wax and identified its qualities, that is, its color, taste, smell, texture and sound; all of which we come to know through our bodily senses. But when he puts this piece of wax on fire, all those qualities that he observed, changed. Nevertheless, he knows for certain that it is still the same piece of wax, so s omething must have remained so as to consider this wax as the same piece of wax. Thus, Descartes identifies certain primary qualities of the piece of wax, which remain constant, namely: figure, the capacity for change, and spatial extension. These primary qualities are what define the true nature of the piece of wax, and for all material objects and physical substances. What he initially perceived through his senses are mere secondary qualities of the object, which do not belong to the object itself, but are mere sensations and come from within him. In this regard, Descartes is now aware of the distinction between mental and physical substances, that is, mind and matter. According to Descartes, God created these two kinds of substances totally different from one another. Mental substances or the mind, is a thinking thing, has consciousness and is morally responsible for its thoughts. It is not spatially extended and has no capacity for motion, and has free will. On the other hand, p hysical substances or matter, has no consciousness, is subject to mechanical motion, is determined and is spatially extended. These two substances are two mutually exclusive entities, which are independent from each other. In other words, mind cannot be matter and matter cannot be mind. This leads to Descartes’ metaphysical dualism, which claims that there exists a two-fold reality,

Monday, November 18, 2019

Vehicle Routing and Container Loading Problem Research Paper

Vehicle Routing and Container Loading Problem - Research Paper Example To optimize on the supply chain operation, researchers developed solutions for the vehicle routing problem (VLP) and also the container loading problem (CLP). It is impossible to optimize the routing process only and fail to optimize the CLP process. Likewise is impossible to develop solutions for CLP without developing VLP solutions. This paper suggests the use of an integrated approach to solve the routing problem. Several methods have been put across by different mathematician to help tackle the routing and packing problems. Some of these methods include the formulation of mathematical models, the use of algorithms as well as the integration of the two methods. This paper suggests the use of an integrated vehicle routing and container packing problem with the use of generic algorithms. G= (VA) which represents the complete graph with V representing the nodes and A representing the arc set, the vertex set V is described by V= and 0 represent the depot and represent the nodes. K represents the number of available vehicles. The vehicles are defined by their length, width and height. These dimensions are defined as HK, MK, WK,LK which represent the height , weight, width and length of the vehicle. the cost of vehicles to travel from point i to j is given by Cijk, the traveling time for the vehicle from the point i to j is given by tijk, the service time of vehicle K at node i is given by Sik, the cargo type is represented by, the length of the cargo is represented by lp, while the cargo width is represented by wp. The weight of the cargo is given by mp. The time taken to load cargo to the track is given by tdpk, while the time taken to unload the cargo is given by tupk. The demand for the cargo at a given node (n) is represented by Dp(i). The number of cargo delivered by vehicle K is given by. Setting the constrains Clients; the model assumes that the clients are distributed within a given geographical area. Some clients are near the deport while others are situated away. Deport: the model assumes that there is one deport to serve these clients Vehicles; the vehicles are the same, that is they are homogenous Vehicle capacity; the capacity constrains for the vehicle are given by weight that the vehicle can carry and the volume of the vehicle. The volume of the vehicle is defined by setting (length by width by height of the vehicle). The correct definition involves defining

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Origins and History of Punk Fashion

The Origins and History of Punk Fashion The time and birthplace of Punk movement is debatable. Either the New York scene of the late sixties or the British Punks of 1975-76 can be given the honour. Conventionally, it is thought the New Yorkers invented the musical style while the Londoners popularized the attitude and the appearance. For our purpose, we will just watch over the British punk because it was just in the late seventies that the movement gained some importance and formalization. Punk in Britain was a movement essentially made of deprived working-class white youths. There is a strong connection between the punk phenomenon and the economic and social inequalities in Great Britain. The aim of this work is to show where the punk came from and how the movement developed its own style, quite different from any other else, up to making it a proper fashion recognized worldwide. In the fist chapter, it will be introduced the concept of subculture. The punk was in fact one of the many white youth subculture sparkled after the Second World War. It will be explained why youth subcultures emerged and they will be delineated the main features of some of them. A deep analysis of Punk movement origins will be carried out in the second chapter. Here it will be possible to understand the social reasons which led to the creation of punk and the many different sources of style which contributed to the formation of a punk aesthetic. The main feature of the punk aesthetic, then, will be exposed and commented in the third chapter. This chapter focus on the use of shocking and glowering clothes and accessories as a way of rebellion against the mainstream and the society. In the fourth chapter, it will be discussed the role of media in the spread and acceptance of the punk subculture. As we will see in this chapter, little by little media changed attitude toward punk. There was a shift from fear to integration of punks which can be explained through the analysis of two forms of incorporation, the commodity form and the ideological form. Yet in this chapter, it will be presented on of the main pillar of the punk ideology, the Do It Yourself (DIY) philosophy, which influenced everything in the punk subculture from the music to the fashion. In the fifth chapter, then, it will be drawn the story of what can be considered the real birthplace of the punk fashion, the 430 Kings Road, where Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren started their careers. It will be delineated the evolution of the different shops that followed each other at this address and, what is more important, the evolution of the styles proposed by these shops which became the point of reference for the most important punk fashion addicted. In the sixth and last chapter, finally, it will be pointed out how the commodity form of incorporation struck the punk made it fashion available and accepted by the vast public. The 1977 couture collection of Zandra inspired to punks may be identified as the final blow for a pure punk style and the beginning of its exploitation as a fashion trend. From that time on many fashion designers inspired to a punk aesthetic for their collections. Recently the whole fashion system seems to have rediscovered the punk: From Jean-Paul Gaultier to Moschino up to low-cost retailers as Zara or HM. Chapter 1 Youth subcultures:  The source of style The term subculture came up for the first time around the second half of the 1940s in anthropological and sociological writing. As early as 1950, David Riesman distinguished between a majority, which passively accepted commercially provided styles and meanings, and a subculture which actively sought a minority style (hot jazz at the time) and interpreted it in accordance with subversive values. Thus the audience [] manipulates the product (and hence the producer), no less than the other way round (Riesman, 1950). From that time on, many different studies were carried out and various interpretations on the meaning and the function of the subcultures were given by estimated personalities as John Clarke, Phil Cohen, Walter Miller, Matza and Sykes, Peter Willmott and Stuart Hall.   In particular, Dick Hebdige gave one of the biggest contributions to the study of subcultures in his 1979 book Subculture the Meaning of style which encompasses all theories from the above mentionated authors and uses them to analyze the youth subcultures. From hipsters to teddy boys, from skinheads to mods, from glitter rockers to punks, the youth cultural styles consecution is here reinterpreted, reposing on Gramscis notion of hegemony, as symbolic forms of resistance; as spectacular symptoms of a wider more generally submerged dissent which characterized the whole post-war period (Hebdige, 1979) The origins of youth subcultures are, thus, to be found after the Second World War when the traditional patterns of everyday life were completely upturned. The emergence of the mass media, modifications in the structure of the family and in the organization of school and work, shifts in the relative burdens of work and leisure, all contributed in fragmenting and polarizing the working-class community. In this contest, also the role and the relative importance of the working-class youth experienced a deep change: their purchasing power enormously increased (during the period 1945-50 it was estimated that the average real wage of teenagers increased at twice the adults rate) and, consequently, it was created a new youth market in order to take up the resulting surplus. From then on, the youth started to express and impose its own identity against the parental one. According to Cohen youth subcultures can be defined as a compromise solution between two contradictionary needs: The need to create and express autonomy and difference from parents [] and the need to maintain the parental identifications (Cohen, 1972). That is to say, the latent function of subculture was to express and resolve, albeit magically, the contradictions which remain hidden or unresolved in the parent culture (Cohen, 1972) As Hebdige pointed out, skinheads, for instance, undoubtedly reasserted those values associated with the traditional working-class community, but they did so in the face of the widespread renunciation of those values in the parent culture at a time when such an affirmation of the classic concerns of working- class life was considered inappropriate(Hebdige, 1979). But it is also the case of mods: in fact they were negotiating changes and contradictions which were simultaneously affecting the parent culture but they were doing so in terms of their own relatively autonomous problematic by inventing an elsewhere (the week-end, the West End) which was defined against the familiar locales of the home, the pub, the working-mans club, the neighbourhood (Hebdige, 1979). Nevertheless, we must be careful in stressing the importance of integration and coherence between youth and parent culture because one of the most relevant feature in the definition of a subculture is its dissonance and discontinuity with the most largely accepted culture. This is particularly evident if we take in consideration the punk subculture. As Hebdige writes in fact we should be hard pressed to find in the punk subculture, for instance, any symbolic attempts to retrieve some of the socially cohesive elements destroyed in the parent culture (Cohen, 1972) beyond the simple fact of cohesion itself: the expression of a highly structured, visible, tightly bounded group identity. Rather, the punks seemed to be parodying the alienation and emptiness which have caused sociologists so much concern, realizing in a deliberate and wilful fashion the direst predictions of the most scathing social critics, and celebrating in a mock-heroic terms the death of the community and collapse of traditional forms of meaning. Even if each subculture strives to be different and unique among other ones, they all share a common feature: they are all cultures of conspicuous consumption. This term indicates the practice of abnormally spending on goods and services with the main objective of flaunting the belonging to a social status, a particular group or, as in this case, to a specific subculture. It is through the distinctive rituals of consumption, through style, that the subculture at once reveals its secret identity and communicates its forbidden meanings. It is basically the way in which commodities are used in subculture which marks the subculture off from the more orthodox cultural formations. (Hebdige, 1979). The style can be defined as the self-image that a person creates representing his or her personality. Style, however, is not built at an individual level but it is strongly dictated by the subculture rules. Everyone identifying in a specific subculture is unconsciously constrained in the adoption, use, dissemination, and the rejection of a certain style of clothing or even acting. That because of the so-called social pressure: the behaviour of a single person is so much linked to the influence exerted by the social groups that the individual identity muddles up with the collective identity. Accordingly, the identity of the individual is recognized just as his or her membership to the reference group is recognized and accepted by all other members. In this contest, the apparel assumes a key role becoming the most evident sign of affiliation and, thus, one of the principal mean of social avowal. Considering the clothing in the sense of a common communication code, it becomes important to identify the symbolic value of different clothes. Actually, they always carry a message about the style of a group, and to a more precise analysis, they can tell us everything we need to know about norms and values of a specific group and even about its formation processes. Thus, the apparel adopted by a subculture should not be seen as a transient fashion but as a visual image of what are the values and norms characterizing that specific subculture and distinguishing it from parent culture and from the other youth subculture too, and inasmuch symbolic representation, it needs to be carefully analyzed to be properly interpreted. Chapter 2 The Punk: a Mix of heterogeneous youth styles I can play punk rock, and I love playing punk rock, but I was into every other style of music before I played punk rock.  (Travis Baker) This quotation from one of the most famed punk-rock drummer of the recent years well summarizes what was the punk movements background. Punks origins are blended and even conflicting, coming from a wide range of different musical and fashion styles. Influenced by David Bowie and glitter rock, combined with the main features of Southend rb rhythms, inspired by American proto-punk, twisted with northern soul and with reggae, the punk can be described as a patchwork made of distorted reflections coming from almost every previous post-war youth culture stuck together with safety pins. (Jon Savage, 2007) It is like punk unearthing and renewing entire wardrobes belonging to different ages with the aim of proposing them in revitalized cut-up form. Glam rock contributed narcissism, nihilism and gender confusion. American punk offered a minimalist aesthetic (e.g. the Ramones Pinhead or Crimes I stupid), the cult of the street and a penchant for self-laceration. Northern Soul (a genuinely secret subculture of working-class youngsters dedicated to acrobatic dancing and fast American soul of the 60s, which centres on clubs like Wigan Casino) brought its subterranean tradition of fast, jerky rhythms, solo dance styles and amphetamines; reggae its exotic and dangerous aura or forbidden identity, its conscience, its dread and its cool. Native rhythm n blues reinforced the brashness and the speed of Northern Soul, took back to the basics and contributed a highly developed iconoclasm, a thoroughly British person and an extremely selective appropriation of the rock n roll heritage. (Hebdige, 1979) However, the link between these so heterogeneous styles is to be found in the social contest in which the punk movement emerged. We are dealing with the late 1970s in Britain, with its massive unemployment, with its continuous warlike violence episodes (as ,for instance, the tragic one happened during the 76 Notting Hill Carnival to which the punk group The Clash dedicated the song White riot), with its changing moral standards and its rediscovery of poverty. It was exactly in this period that the race relations became fundamental. On the one hand, there was the urban black youths, living and working in Britain but dreaming and finding an imaginary refuge in an elsewhere (Africa, the West Indies, etc.) through the reggae and the Rastafarianism. On the other hand, there was the white working-class youth, placed at the same social level as the black ones but stuck in their present time, having no foreseeable future and no places or means to escape the reality. In fact, the model proposed by the glam rock made of literary influences (from Rimbaud, Burroughs, Lautrà ©amont and Huysmans) and underground cinema, focused on the concepts of polymorphism, perverse sexuality and obsessive individualism resulted too remote from the majority of working-class youth. They were imprisoned in a vicious circle. They felt as aliens, rejected not only by the rest of the world but also by the any existent music genre. They had no reference models, no hopes for the future and neither perspectives of improvement. Therefore, they started to act out alienation, to mime its imagined condition, to manufacture a whole series of subjective correlatives for the official archetypes of the crisis of modern life: the unemployment figures, the Depression, the Westway, Television, etc. (Hebdige, 1979) The awareness of this crisis led to the conversion of what was an inner malaise into tangible icons (the safety pins, the ripped clothes, the spikes, the hungry look, the combat boots, etc.) reflecting in an enhanced way the perceived condition of exile and alienation, which is, nevertheless, voluntarily assumed. Punks, thus, moved back to earlier, more vigorous forms of rock (i.e. the 50s and the mid-60s when the black influences had been strongest) and forward to contemporary reggae(dub, Bob Marley) in order to find a music which reflected more adequately their sense of frustration and oppression. (Hebdige, 1979). They saw in Rastafarian history of exile a point of contact and it was exactly for this reason it was the only accepted subculture alternative to punk. Richard Hell, a punk musician, interviewed in the popular music magazine New Musical Express declared, punks are niggers (NME, 29 October 1977). An inevitably feisty claim but it is indicative of what was the real situation at that time. As Hebdige writes, the punk can be seen in part as white translation of black ethnicity. (Hebdige, 1979) In addition, this unstudied identification with black British and the West Indian tradition was a way to oppose actively to teddy boys, their hated rivals. In fact, punks used to modify and wear elements from the teddy boys style and it was perceived as an outrage by the teddy boy revivalists because they felt as punks stealing and fooling their way of clothing and, in a sense, their ideals. Punk style was perhaps interpreted by the teddy boys as an affront to the traditional working-class values of forthrightness, plain speech and sexual Puritanism which they had endorsed and revived (Hebdige, 1979). Concrete evidences of this tension between the two subcultures could be found every Saturday afternoon in the summer of 1977 along Kings Road where punctually a throng of punks and teds met to fight. Therefore, Reggae, notwithstanding its apparent distance from punk music, started to be present in a number of repertoires of punk bands as The Clash, The Slits, The Jam, and many others. In the majority of punk clubs, they used to play regularly heavy reggae music between live acts and, moreover, the song Punky Reggae Party by Bob Marley The Wailers, is the evident and overwhelming proof of this contamination. Chapter 3 Punks rebellion through style Rebellion is the heart of the punk subculture. Rebellion against society, rebellion against social inequalities, rebellion, in last instance, against conformism. Everything the punks did, everything they wore, dance to, fight for, everything can be consider as punk has the only aim of convey a message of nonconformity. Conformity can be defined as a change in a persons behaviour or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or a group of people. (Aronson, 1972) Therefore, punks rebellion was essentially against the prevailing modes of thought; what common people took for granted that is to say the necessity to have a good and certain job, the blame on homosexuality, the mistrust in other race, it was simply not accepted as the only and the best code of conduct. However, punks were young, poor, and completely helpless in effectively struggling for changing the reality. Therefore, the only weapon they found to react was to transform themselves in directly offensive and threatening beings. Punks, like previous post-war youth subculture such as teddy boys, the mods, the rockers, the skinheads, the beats, the zoot suiters, and the hippies created, a coherent and elaborate system of body adornment that expressed their estrangement from mainstream society and that horrified the general public. Having little access to dominant means of discourse, punks displayed their disaffiliation and their subcultural identity through such adornment, which was for them an accessible and direct channel of communication. By manipulating the standard codes of adornment in socially objectionable ways punks challenged the accepted categories of everyday dress and disrupted the codes and conventions of daily life (Wojick,1995) Early punks, probably unconsciously, used most of the rebellion techniques typical of the early avant-gardists: unusual fashions, the blurring of boundaries between art and every day life, juxtapositions of seemingly disparate objects and behaviours, intentional provocation of the audience, use of unstrained performers and drastic reorganization (or disorganization) of accepted performance styles and procedure (OHara,1999) In this contest, it is not surprisingly that the main features of punk fashion were so extremely impressive and shocking. Objects borrowed form the most sordid of contexts found a place in the punks ensembles: lavatory chains were draped in graceful arcs across chests encased in plastic bin-liners. Safety-pins were taken put of their domestic utility context and worn as gruesome ornaments through the cheek, ear or lip. Cheap trashy fabrics (PVC, plastic lurex, etc.) in vulgar designs (e.g. mock leopard skin) and nasty colours, long discarded by the quality end of the fashion industry as obsolete kitsch, were salvaged by the punks and turned into garments (fly boy drainpipes, common miniskirts) which offered self-conscious commentaries on the notions of modernity and taste.(Hebdige, 1979) Even the conventional ideas of beauty and attractiveness were refused. Hair was dyed with bright colours and straightened up in spikes and Mohawk. Body piercing degenerated in self-mutilation: studs and pins prinked eyebrows, cheeks, nose and lips. Make-up was used by both boys and girls in a massive and impressive way: cosmetics became as paint to be used in creating alien masks to hide behind. As Hebdige argued, beneath the clownish make-up there lurked the unaccepted and disfigured face of capitalism. Claiming to be anarchists and nihilists, punks felt free to offend as many people as they could. They wore terrorist/guerrilla outfits, directly offensive T-shirt covered in swear words or fake blood, along with desecrated religious object and sexually deviant accessories. The perverse and the abnormal were valued intrinsically. In particular, the illicit iconography of sexual fetishism was used to predictable effect. Rapist masks and rubber wear, leather bodices and fishnet stocking, implausibly pointed stiletto heeled shoes, the whole paraphernalia of bondage the belts, straps and chains were exhumed from the boudoir, closet and pornographic film and placed on the street were they retained their forbidden connotations. Some young punks even donned the dirty raincoat the most prosaic symbol of sexual kinkiness- and hence expressed their deviance in suitably proletarian terms. (Hebdige, 1979) For the first wave punks, each adornment used had a precise meaning: The safety pins and bin liners, for instance, symbolized a material and spiritual poverty in an exaggerated form, which could be really experienced or just acted out. In other words, the safety pins, etc. enacted that transition from real to symbolic scarcity which Paul Piccone (1969) has described as the movement from empty stomachs to empty spirits and therefore an empty life notwithstanding [the] chrome and the plastic [â‚ ¬Ã‚ ¦] of the lifestyle of bourgeois society. (Hebdige, 1979) One of the most controversial symbol used by punks were surely the swastika. This symbol was made available to the punks through Bowie and Lou Reeds Berlin phase. It evoked a decadent and evil Germany, an idea of no future strictly linked to the punks mood. Therefore, it had nothing to do with the Nazisms ideology in the punks vision. Quite the opposite, punks firmly supported the anti-fascism and anti-racism movement. In the punk wear, the swastika lost its classic meaning and it was worn just because it was guaranteed to shock. Conventionally, the swastika has always signified enemy and hate, and to be hated is exactly what punks wanted. Chapter 4 Role of media and DIY As it was showed previously, punk was surely a spectacular subculture and it would have been very difficult for media not to pay attention to it. Although many others groups had paved the way for punk through 1975, it was not until the advent of the Sex Pistols that punk began to take shape as a noticeable style for the vast public. The  New Musical Express  gave the  Sex Pistols  their first music press coverage in the 21 February 1976 for their performance at the Marquee. From then on punk rock began to attract critical attention of the specialized press, and criticism from all the rest of the world. Moral panic began emerging clamant after the accident happened at the punk festival at 100 Club in Soho in the September of the same year, when a girl was partially blinded by flying beer glass. Punks were angry, wore absurd and offensive clothes and openly claimed they wanted to fight the society and to be heated. It is not surprising that in few months all the British press was focused on this new subculture frightening the middle class. Punk was described as a big social problem and the deviant and anti-social act (as vandalism, swearing, fighting etc.) did nothing but worsen the situation. Their style was used as counter-evidence of the danger they represented: They infringed the sartorial codes in the same way they disrupted the civil and social codes; they dress in an inhuman way because they are beasts acting as animals without moral. Therefore, punks were demonized in the press and depicted as folk devils. They were a threat to adjure before it led to a degeneracy of all British youth: concerts were cancelled, the Sex Pistols song God save the Queen was banned by British radios, and moral barricades were raised by editors, politicians and other right-thinking people. However, nothing of the above could stop the punk movements diffusion. For the first time in the history, there was an attempt by a working-class youth subculture to provide an alternative critical space within the subculture itself to counteract the hostile ore at least ideologically inflected coverage which punk was receiving in the media. (Hebdige, 1979) An alternative punk press was created: the fanzines. Punk fanzines were non-professional and nonofficial journals edited by an individual or a small group consisting of reviews, editorials and interviews with the most important exponents of the punk scene. These publications were produced on a small scale as cheaply as possible and distributed through a small number of sympathetic retail outlets. The language in which the various manifestos were framed was determinedly working class (i.e. it was liberally peppered with swear words) and typing errors and grammatical mistakes, misspellings and jumbled pagination were left uncorrected in the final proof. Those corrections and crossings out that were made before publication were left to be deciphered by the reader. The overwhelming impression was one of urgency and immediacy, of a paper produced in indecent haste, of memos from the front line. (Hebdige, 1979) The fanzines are one of the most notable expressions of the punks Do It Yourself (DIY) concept. The  DIY ethic, in general terms,  refers to the ethic of being self-reliant by completing tasks oneself as opposed to having others who are more experienced or able complete them for you. The DIY ethic is tied to  punk ideology  and  anti consumerism, as a rejection of the need to purchase items or use existing systems or processes. Sniffin Glue, the first fanzine and the one which achieved the highest circulation, contained perhaps the single most inspired item of propaganda produced by the subculture the definitive statement of punks do- it -your self philosophy- a diagram showing three finger positions on the neck of a guitar over the caption: Heres one chord, heres two more, now form your band. (Hebdige, 1979) Nevertheless, the Do it yourself philosophy was not confined just in the press world. Emerging punk bands began to record their music, produce albums and merchandise, distribute their works and often performed  basement shows  in  residential  homes rather than at traditional  venue, in this way they could to avoid  corporate sponsorship and to secure freedom in performance. To be honest, these emergent bands had no many other choices because most of venues tended to evade more  experimental music, and so houses were often the only places at which they were allowed to play. Obviously, also punk fashion followed the DIY ideology: The clothes suited the lifestyle of those with limited cash due to unemployment and the general low-income school leavers. Punks cut up old clothes from charity and thrift shops, destroyed the fabric and refashioned outfits creating a very innovative way of clothing never existed before. This stylistic innovation attracted the medias attention provoking two different responses: In the fashion pages, the newness and the creativity of the punk fashion began to be not only accepted but also celebrated, while there was a big part of the British press still stigmatizing the punk as ridiculous and offensive. Starting from an initial acceptance by the fashion magazines, little by little all media began a sort of process of recuperation and incorporation of the punk: obviously, young punks still represented a deviant way of living but the medias attitude, and so of the whole society as well, slowly shifted from a demonizing approach to an exorcising approach. This was made, as Hebdige explains, throughout two different forms: The ideological form and the commodity form A Ideological form Through this form, media tried to neutralize the differences between punks and common people. Young punks family assumed a new role. The punks tended to be resituated by the press in the family, perhaps because members of the subculture deliberately obscured their origins, refused the family and willingly played the part of folk devil, presenting themselves as pure objects, as villainous clowns. [â‚ ¬Ã‚ ¦]. For whatever reason, the inevitable glut of articles gleefully denouncing the latest punk outrage was counter-balanced by an equal number of items devoted to the small detail of punk family life. (Hebdige, 1979) During the summer of 1977, several articles were published on punk babies, punk-ted weddings and on a lot of other common daily situations involving punks and with titles like Punks have mothers too: They tell us a few home truths (Woman, 15 April 1978) or Punks and Mothers (Woman s Own, 15 October 1977) All these articles served to minimize the Otherness so stridently proclaimed in punk style, and defined the subculture in precisely those terms which it sought most vehemently to resist and deny (Hebdige, 1979) B Commodity form This second form of incorporation is the most interesting for the purposes of this research. It is trough this form that subcultural signs (clothes, music etc.) are driven to the conversion into mass-produced objects. Therefore, it is here the key to understand how the punk way of clothing, born from the rebellion against the whole society and characterised from the beginning by an anti-fashion attitude, could be transformed and largely exploited as a proper fashion trend. But first to get to this, it will be necessary to draw the story of what could be consider the cradle of punk fashion The 430, Kings Road. Chapter 5 430, Kings Road Everything started in the October 1971 when Malcolm McLaren and his art-school friend Patrick Casey opened, here in the heart of the Chelsea district, a small stand in the back room of a shop called Paradise Garage. They sold at time original rock n roll vinyl records, specialized music magazines, vintage items from the 1950s and some garment. The young McLaren was convinced that music and fashion were two inseparable things and so, when in 1971 he obtained the proprietary rights on the store, he renamed it Let It Rock and transformed it in a clothing store stocked up with second-hand and new teddy boy clothes designed by his girlfriend Vivienne Westwood. The shop wavy iron facade was painted black with the stores name written in pink letters, while the interior followed the typical stylish period details, such as the so-called Odeon wallpapers. Westwoods designs sold in the shop were outrageous and outlandish, inspired by bikers, fetishists and prostitutes. Brothel creeper shoes, drape coats, and skin-tight trousers were designed by Vivienne Westwood (but also by McLaren itself) and then made up by an East End tailor and by a local seamstress.   One of the most representative example of the kind of garments sold in this first-phase Let It Rock is the Bones T-shirt: Using chicken bones acquired from a local takeaway, Westwood boiled and drilled the bones and attached them with chains and studs to spell keywords such as Rock and Perv. The idea originated in the skull and crossbones of the bikers, but it gave the garment a primitive, talismanic power. [1] Nothing similar ever appeared in the entire fashion world scene: the store with its creation attract the attention of the international press, from the Rolling Stone to certain Japanese magazines. It was a real success but McLaren was not completely satisfied with the style of the shop: their main customers were teddy boys and he had huge problems with them. For these reason the next year, he travelled to New York for a boutique fair where he met the emergent American rock band the New York Dolls. It was here he started to take his first steps in the rock music system. In fact he took over their management, he dressed them in red leather clothes supplied by his London store and promoted them using Soviet iconography. The Dolls broke up soon after, but served their purpose as a dry run for the management style he would soon deploy to spectacula