Friday, September 20, 2019
Yoga As A Health Benefit The classical techniques of Yoga date back more than 5,000 years. While Yoga has been used in India for centuries to treat disease, only recently has there been scientific evidence and growing interest in the benefits of therapeutic yoga as a specialty treatment which combines postures, breathing exercises, mindfulness, and meditation. The cross-fertilization of Western science with ideas from ancient Eastern wisdom systems has been adding scientific legitimacy to the discipline of yoga over the last few decades. Medical professionals and scientists are pursuing yoga-related research, focusing on its potential to prevent, heal, or alleviate specific conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, carpal tunnel syndrome, asthma, diabetes, and symptoms of menopause, and its benefits as a technique for relieving stress and coping with chronic conditions or disabilities. Evidence-based publications report on clinical benefits associated with yoga, including reaction time, respirat ory endurance, proprioception, and other physiological and psychological effects. Mudras (yoga for the hands) are defined as hand gestures that are historically grounded in the ancient Indian arts and sciences. Referring to gestures or attitude, the science of yoga describes mudras as a means to control or alter the mood by reorienting or focusing the flow of prana (vital spiritual energy) in desired directions or concentrating it at specific places within the body. Modern yoga literature explains Mudras as seals or circuit bypasses for energy currents. Mudras can be used to improve hand strength and flexibility after injury because they are a simple, portable, enjoyable, and economic exercises and research shows that regular yoga practice can be used to improve overall body strength and flexibility. Some of what is taught by yoga teachers in classes, books and journals defies modern understanding of anatomy and physiology or is grounded in metaphysics that is off-putting or virtually incomprehensible. But now, scientists are able to look at the body and brain with increasing precision, detecting subtle changes that practitioners of yoga and meditation undergo. The majority of scientific research on yoga takes place in India and is very difficult to access in the United States. Because few yoga studies were previously conducted in the West, most American scientists dismissed Indian yoga research due to methodological problems, such as a lack of control groups in the studies. The methodology has improved significantly and it can be argued that currently, many Indian yoga studies are superior to many of those conducted in the West. Given the Western allopathic model, translating the information using the language and perspective of science as much as possible is recommended to demo nstrate to physicians and other health care professionals how therapeutic yoga can benefit patients. As yoga moves deeper into the mainstream, and as research dollars for complementary and integrative health systems increase, the number of yoga practitioners and health professionals are increasing. The number of randomized clinical trials is growing as well. Improved study designs are being used both in India and the United States. In just the last few years, research has documented the efficacy of yoga for such conditions as back pain, multiple sclerosis, insomnia, cancer, heart disease, and even tuberculosis. The 2008 Yoga in America study shows 15.8 million people currently practice and also revealed an upward trend in the therapeutic medical use of yoga. According to the study, nearly 14 million Americans reported a doctor or therapist recommending yoga to them. Nearly half of all adults agreed that yoga would be a beneficial treatment for a medical condition. Yoga as medicine represents the next great yoga wave, says Kaitlin Quistgaard, editor in chief of Yoga Journal. In the n ext few years, we will be seeing a lot more yoga in health care settings and more yoga recommended by the medical community as new research shows that yoga is a valuable therapeutic tool for many health conditions. There are 112 clinical trials utilizing yoga currently listed on the National Institutes of Health web site. These involve numerous medical conditions including arthritis, fibromyalgia, cancer, chronic neck pain, chronic back pain, asthma, kyphosis, etc. The individual trials are being conducted at medical centers across the country and involve thousands of patients. Evidence regarding the medical benefit of yoga shows mixed results. There are several reasons for this, including funding obstacles. The biggest challenge yoga studies face is that given the best intentions, it is difficult to properly ascertain the effectiveness of yoga as an exercise therapy. Yoga is not easily fit into the form of study that is most often used to prove effectiveness, the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. While it is possible to design a placebo form of study, it would be exceedingly difficult to conceal from participants and researchers the practice of real yoga versus an inauthentic version. It is inevitable that some compromise with the research standards is required, and the compromise used in most studies is not ideal. Oftentimes, the practice of yoga is compared to no treatment. The problem with such studies is that a treatment, any treatment, frequently appears as better than no treatment due to multiple factors. A better trial design would be compare yoga practice to a generic form of exercise, such as daily walking. To date, this design has not been commonly implemented. Hatha yoga has been studied in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. In one study, forty-two individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome were randomly assigned to receive either yoga instruction or a wrist splint for a period of eight weeks. The results indicated that yoga was more effective than the wrist splint. The study results were soundly criticized due to a serious design flaw as participants in the control group were simply offered the wrist splint and given the choice of using it or not. Critics stated they would have preferred for subjects to have received options such as fake laser acupuncture or phony yoga postures rather than nothing. Experience from numerous studies shows that when people believe they are receiving an effective treatment, they report improvement regardless of the nature of the treatment. The School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania used yoga to treat a group of patients with osteoarthritis of the hands. The treated group improved significantly more than the control group in pain during activity, tenderness, and finger range of motion. The randomized controlled clinical trial, published in the Journal of Rheumatology in 1994, concluded, This yoga-derived program was effective in providing relief in hand osteoarthritis. Further studies are needed to compare this with other treatments and to examine long-term effects. In another small study published in the British Journal of Rheumatology, it was found that a three-month program of gentle asana and breathing techniques resulted in improved grip strength in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. As an interesting note, Robin Monro, PhD, of the London Based Yoga Biomedical Trust found that that all patients wished to continue the practice after the study was finalized. Yoga poses called asanas work by safely stretching muscles. This releases lactic acid that builds up with muscles use and causes stiffness, tension, pain, and fatigue. In addition, yoga increases the range of motion in joints. It may also increase cellular joint lubrication. The outcome is a sense of ease and fluidity throughout the body. Yoga stretches not only muscles, but the bodys soft tissues as well, including ligaments, tendons, and the fascia sheath surrounding muscles. Vigorous exercises and precise alignment poses can provide strength and endurance benefits. Some yoga styles use specific meditation techniques to quiet the constant mind chatter that often underlies stress. Other yoga styles use deep breathing techniques to focus the mind on breath. Once focused, the mind settles down and becomes more calm and quiet. Yogas anti-stress benefits may include a reduction in catecholamines, the adrenal gland stress hormone. Another benefit of yoga is its unique way of massaging th e internal glands and organs of the body in a thorough way, including those such as the prostate gland that are rarely stimulated externally. Massage and stimulation of the organs can serve to prevent and also provide early forewarning of disease. A practicing physician for over twenty years, in his book Yoga as Medicine, David Coulter, MD, says that yoga is the most powerful system of overall health and well-being he has ever seen. He describes it as a single comprehensive system that, among other things, has been shown to increase strength, flexibility, and balance, enhance immune function, lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels, facilitate weight loss, strengthen bones, prevent injuries as well as improve psychological well-being. As the major blockages of physical and energy flows are removed through the practice of yoga asanas, pranayama and bandhas, it is believed that advanced practitioners utilize Mudras to effect extraordinary self-control of prana in the brain and the central nervous system. Swami Satyanand Saraswati observed that Mudras provide a means to access and influence the unconscious reflexes and primal, instinctive habit patterns that originate in the primitive areas of the brain around the brain stem. They establish a subtle, non-intellectual connection with these areas. Each Mudra sets up a different link and has a correspondingly different effect on the body, mind and prana. Echoing that concept is a recent study sponsored by the NIH National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), in collaboration with the Hofstra University School of Medicine and San Diego State University, which showed sign language being largely processed in the same brain regions as spoken lang uage, including the inferior frontal gyrus in the front left side of the brain and the posterior temporal region toward the back left side of the brain. Dr. Braun believes that developing a better understanding of brain systems supporting gestures and words may also help in the treatment of some patients with aphasia. The palms and fingers of the hands contain an abundance of nerve endings, which continually emit bioelectric energy. Touching or pressing specific points on the fingers and the thumb folded in specific manner activates specific nerve or nerve bundles thus triggering specific signals. This is what makes certain Mudras suitable for enhancing mental and physical effects. The importance of specific points and portions of hand (and other parts of the body) can also be seen in healing effects of acupressure on the physical body. The advanced effects of yoga and of Mudras in particular are associated with mental refinement, deep meditation and spiritual conditioning. Even for beginning practitioners, Mudras utilized as physical exercises can increase manual dexterity and can be effective for stretching and maintaining hand mobility. Exactly when and where systematized and stylized gestures originated remains a mystery, however almost all ancient cultures made use of hand signs in one way or another. Mudras, or hand gestures, were employed in early religion, rhetoric, art, social gatherings and by trade guilds. The Comacines, the builders of Europes finest cathedrals, and the trade guild known as the Dionysiac Artificers who were responsible for the construction of ancient buildings and structures, all made use of hand signs as a system of communication and protection of their conclaves or secret meetings against unauthorized entry. In Hinduism and Buddhism, hundreds of Mudras were used in yogic practice for ceremonies, drama, and dance. Most of these were symbolic in nature, but others had metaphysical virtues. There are literally hundreds of Mudra-gestures formed by the ancient yogis and sages. They are all based on four basic hand positions: the open palm, the hollowed palm, the closed fist, and the hand with fingertips together. Cheironomy is the term used to denote the study of ritualistic hand gestures and spontaneous movements in directing vocal music. This primarily refers to esoteric symbolism and certain forms or gestures and signs used in religious rites. The religious ceremonies of many ancient cultures considered gestures vital as they were believed to contain powers to call upon the gods, to unfold powers, and to affect surroundings. In occultism, each hand gesture embodies a particular significance and force. Ancient Egyptians regarded even the pictorial representations of their pharaohs as highly potent. Whether creating statutes or depicting pharaohs in murals, the artists were careful to represent Mudras accurately, fearing harsh consequences for misrepresentation. Mudras also play an important role in the Indian Classical Dance. There are single hand gestures, called Asamyukta Hastah, which can be performed by either the right hand only or the left hand only or by both hands simultaneously without combining the two hands. The gestures formed by uniting both hands are called Samyukta Hastah. According to the ancient scripture Abhinaya Darpana (Nandikeshwara) there are twenty-eight single hand gestures and twenty-four united hand gestures. These hand gestures or Mudras are frequently used in the Indian Classical Dance known as Bharatanatyam. There are Mudras which represent all the Gods and Goddesses (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Saraswati, Lakshmi, etc.), the four different castes (Brahmana, Kshatriya, etc.), different relations (Mother, daughter, etc.), the nine the nine planets (Sun, moon, etc.), rivers (Ganga, Yamuna, etc.), animals (Lion, deer, etc.) and many others. There are numerous publications that identify the clinical benefit of yoga practice for various medical conditions, including oncology, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, these publications do not specifically report on the upper extremity sensorimotor, musculoskeletal, or neurophysiological results for hand therapy patients. As hand therapists are becoming more aware of the importance and value of respiration, core body strength, and posture to upper extremity function, the incorporation of hand Mudras could provide an integrated approach that broadens the treatment repertoire. On a tissue-specific level, differential tendon gliding, nerve gliding, and proprioception could be facilitated within a calming and holistic context using Mudras. It is well known that movement distributes lubricating synovial fluid, continually secreted into the joint by its synovial lining, over the surface of the cartilage that caps the bones. When the cartilage is well lubricated, the joi nt surfaces glide more easily across each other, reducing wear and tear. Joint movement also helps bring nutrients into cartilage, which lacks its own blood supply. Cartilage acts as a sponge that gets squeezed by movement. Stale synovial fluid, depleted of nutrients, is expressed thus allowing a fresh supply to soak in from the joint when the compression is released. Areas of the joint surface that are rarely used because they are outside the normal grooves of movement fail to get the nutrients they need and over time tend to degenerate. The practice of Mudras can be used to stimulate these little-used surfaces, a prime example of the use it or lose it theory. Mudra exercises can be individually tailored following injury to target specific muscles for the purpose of reducing stress, increasing range of motion, reducing pain, and increasing flexibility and strength. And experts in therapeutic yoga point out that individualizing a treatment approach is oftentimes vital in achieving a success outcome. In addition to working directly with specific injuries or medical conditions, yoga therapists also emphasize the role in healing that mindfulness and awareness the body plays. It can be been argued that tension held in the body often originates in the mind and must be dealt with there first. It is common knowledge that stress contributes to the development and prolongation of many medical conditions, which in turn can delay healing. Experts have noted that while a complaint may show up, for example, as a wrist disorder, effective treatment requires consideration of the upper extremity and torso as well as the role the mind plays in the condition. As part of medical treatment, Yogic philosophy would take into consideration posture, alignment, communication, and the effects of stress on the disorder. There will probably never be scientific validation for each style of yoga or Mudra practice, much less all the possible combinations. As B.K.S. Iyengar says Words fail to convey the total value of yoga. It has to be experienced. Some of yogas aims, like equanimity and compassion, are difficult if not impossible to quantify. And while the current scientific evidence is not robust by Western standards, the growing body of evidence that does exist should not be ignored. We must take some of what we know about yoga on faith-not a faith based on blind acceptance of doctrine, but one grounded in everyday experience. Much more research is needed, with studies being designed to take advantage of potentially beneficial interventions. Strategies that maximize compliance among subjects at greater risk for low adherence will be important for future trials, especially complementary treatments requiring greater effort than simple pill-taking. Carefully exploring the vast universe of yogic healing can provide affordable access to compelling new models of balance and wholeness. Taking a new approach, the middle ground between uncontrolled observations and reductionist philosophy may provide overall greater value to patients. In this age of health care reform it becomes imperative to add to the body of knowledge through not only randomized controlled trials, but through studies of screening and diagnostic tools based on Eastern systems of medicine and allied health sciences, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rate. As a therapeutic modality, yoga continues to show great potential for widespread use. The boundaries are still fluid, however provided that scientists, yoga therapists and physicians continue to communicate and learn from each other, the use of yoga practice and Mudras can expand as an noninvasive and effective means to improve strength and flexibility following injury.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Shirley Jackson's, The Lottery, has raised questions in the back of every reader's mind towards the destructive yet blind rituals of mankind. A reflection of ourselves is what we see when looking through the pond of Jackson's mind. The Lottery clearly expressed Jackson's feelings concerning traditional rituals through her story, opened the eyes of its readers to properly classify and question some of today's traditions as cruel, and allowed room to foretell the outcome of these unusual traditions. Jackson's feelings towards the misuse of tradition as an excuse to cause harm have triggered her creativity for the creation of The Lottery. Jackson obviously saw examples of this misuse of tradition and ingeniously placed it into an exaggerated situation to let us see how barbaric our actions are. The townspeople, in the story, all come together for the annual lottery; however, in an interesting twist, those participating stone the winner to death. Everyone in the story seems horribly unci vilized yet they can easily be compared to today's society. Perhaps Jackson was suggesting the coldness and lack of compassion the human race can exhibit in situations regarding tradition and values. The People who were stoned to death represented values and good being as the townspeople, who represented society, cold-heartedly destroyed them ( Jackson 79 ). Immediately after reading The Lottery, one can compare the ritual, in the story, to some of today's barbaric traditions in a new point of v...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
An understanding of Vue de lÃ¢â¬â¢Exposition Universelle, Paris 1867 Ã¢â¬Å"Manet a toujours reconnu le talent lÃ oÃ ¹ il se trouve et nÃ¢â¬â¢a prÃ ©tendu ni renverser une ancienne peinture ni en crÃ ©er une nouvelle. Il a cherchÃ © simplement Ã Ã ªtre lui-mÃ ªme et non un autre.Ã¢â¬ Edouard Manet, Motifs dÃ¢â¬â¢une exposition particuliÃ ¨re, May 1867 (in Courthion: 139) Manet is a transitional painter, emerging from the realism of the early to mid nineteenth century and a precursor to Ã¢â¬â included in by some authors Ã¢â¬â the impressionist movement. The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s fascination with his work is remarkable. But, as much as his work is appreciated today, he has been criticized and misunderstood by his contemporaries. His radical explorations in composition and representation made him an easy target for unfavorable critics. He has been accused of leaving his paintings unfinished, of not being able to compose, of lack of imagination and even of vulgarity (Hanson, Howard, Mainardi, others). His position as part of the Ã¢â¬Å"tribe of eccentricsÃ¢â¬ (Chesneau q. in Mainardi: 109) has kept Manet out of the conservative catalog of the Fine Arts section of the Exposition Universelle of 1867 in Paris. Since, in the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s words, Ã¢â¬Å"montrer est la question vitale, le sine qua non pour lÃ¢â¬â¢artisteÃ¢â¬ (in Courthion: 140), he was forced to prepare his own show to display his work to the very important public brought to Paris by the world fair. So, he and Courbet borrowed money and set up on the Place de lÃ¢â¬â¢Alma, right on the path leading from the Salon at the Place de lÃ¢â¬â¢Industrie to the Exposition Universelle on the Champ de Mars (Mainardi: 109). It is in this ambiance of optimistic defiance that Manet produced Vue de lÃ¢â¬â¢Exposition Universelle, Paris 1867 , his illustration of the fair. ... ...er Levin Associates, 1988 Hanson, Anne Coffin. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven: Yale U. Press, 1977 Howard, Seymour. Ã¢â¬Å"Early Manet and Artful Error: Foundations of Anti-Illusion in Modern PaintingÃ¢â¬ in Art Journal. New York: College Art Association of America. Vol. 37, Fall 1977: 14-21 LÃ¢â¬â¢Exposition universelle de 1867: guide de lÃ¢â¬â¢exposant et du visiteur, avec les documents officiels, un plan et une vue de lÃ¢â¬â¢Exposition. Paris: Exposition universelle de 1867, 1866 LÃ¢â¬â¢illustration. 6 Avril 1867 Mainardi, Patricia. Ã¢â¬Å"Edouard ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËView of the Universal Exposition of 1867Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ in Arts Magazine. 54(5), January 1980: 108-115 Reff, Theodore, ed. Manet and modern Paris: one hundred paintings, drawings, prints, and photographs by Manet and his contemporaries. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1982 The Illustrated London News. 6 July, 1867
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Situation of Vietnam was no less then a mess, when Richard Milhous Nixon took over the reigns of President-ship in 1969. More than 500,000 troops were stationed in Vietnam and around 1200 American soldiers were being ambushed in action. In domestic front, no one was able to come to any consensus on any further course of action. Majority of the people was feeling that the war was a mistake and some were swayed by the notion that there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be peace for at-least two more years. And added to it, social complexities like the racism and skepticism for anti-war movement gave rise to the longstanding apathy toward Nixon among Democrats.Melvin Laird and Henry Kissinger were appointed as a defense secretary and National Security Advisor respectively. The whole of Nixon and KissingerÃ¢â¬â¢s policy towards Vietnam was based on the pessimism and negativity. And the situation was deeply complex. Nixon had to face the burden at home front too. People would not tolerate continuation of wa r. Secondly Nixon could not afford withdrawal of the troops too as the withdrawal could shake his political roots. In this scenario, Nixon adopted four prolonged strategies, Ã¢â¬Å"Vietnamization, The politics of polarization, The Madman scenario and a Triangular diplomacy. Ã¢â¬ The process of Vietnamization involved efforts to reduce the casualty rates of American soldiers. The strategy he adopted was marginalized. He ought to reduce the combat forces and at the same time turn the voice of the people to the point that South Vietnamese had enough strength to gain control on war and they did not require any ground troops. Secondly, in the process of politics of polarization, he meant to keep his opponents silent and thirdly Henry Kissinger would imbibe in among the representatives of North Vietnamese that the rage Nixon could get into in case they resort to any military action or any obduracy in peace talks.Nixon also tried to follow geopolitical approach to the war. He attempted t o expand the trade relations with Soviet Union and PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China and indirectly forcing North Vietnamese to resort to peaceful settlement to the war. By the end of 1972, U. S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger and the representatives of DRV, Xuan Thuy and Le Duc fashioned a peace draft, which Washington and Hanoi believed its southern allies would accept in Paris but this did not happen. As a result, the war got more intensified when in December 1972, Nixon threw deadly bombs on their the larges cities, Hanoi and Haiphong.These attacks were highly condemned world wide forcing Nixon administration to again reassess his tactics and change his strategy for negotiations. Since 1955, Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia had shown themselves neutral towards both agitating parties but PAVN/NLF took upon the opportunity to use Cambodia as a base of their activities and Sihanouk did not resist because he wanted to evade from being drawn into wider conflict. But when Wash ington pressurized him, he changed his policy in 1969 and he vehemently opposed.The PAVN/NLF and President Nixon grabbed this opportunity and unleashed secret bombings, over their sanctuaries located by the border areas, popularly known as Operation Menu. In a period of 14 months, more than 2,750,000 tons of bombs were secretly dropped. In 1970, supporter of America, General Lon Nol ousted Sihanouk and closed the borders of the country and along with that both United States and the ARVN entered into Cambodia attacking severely AVN/NLF bases taking more time for South Vietnam. These attacks weakened Cambodia and gained the support for the Khmer Rouge. 2His excursions over Cambodia created protests all over America. Ohio protests saw four students killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University raising the public outcry. 3 The attitude of the Nixon government towards the incident was enough to raise furor among public against the War itself. _____________________________________ ______ 2 Bragg, Christine, Vietnam, Korea and US Foreign Policy, 1945-75 (Oxford: Heinemann Publishers, 2006) 3 Bragg, 162 In 1971, the papers showing United States involvement in War was leaked revealing top secrets of United States policies in Vietnam.Soon, ARVN took more offensive route by indulging in Operation Lam Son 719 with an aim to cut the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos. 4 This was against the violation of Laotian neutrality but they were resisted from all fronts and their operation was total fiasco with number of ARVN soldiers scattered here and there and clutched themselves at the United States helicopter skids to save themselves. Half of the soldiers were arrested or killed In 1971, both Australia and New Zealand brought their soldiers back to their nations and slowly and slowly United States too was reducing their strength of soldiers.They were now only 196,700, with a promise to further withdraw other 45,000 troops by February 1972. As the peace protests increased, soldier s became quite disillusioned and the ranks saw the number of soldiers using drugs, adhering to racism and disobedience of their officers. 5 Easter Offensive of 1972 again tested Vietnamization. The PAVN/NLF went inside the northern provinces and with the help of other forces, gave forceful attack from Cambodia, posing the threat to divide the country into half.Soon American airpower launched Operation Linebacker to resist these attacks. Meanwhile, United States continued with withdrawing off troops. Hereby it was coming to the notice of every one that it was impossible for South Vietnam to resist their enemies without AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s air support. By August, all the remaining ground force was completely withdrawn except certain civilian and military advisers. At the same time, Henry Kissinger was forging the secret negotiations with Le Duc Tho.In October 1972, though they came to an agreement but South Vietnamese President Thieu wanted certain changes in the peace accord. When Nort h Vietnam went with the details of the agreement, the ___________________________________________ 4 Bragg, 163. 5 Bragg, 165. Nixon administration thought that the North Vietnam was trying to humiliate the President. Negotiations came to a dead knell but Hanoi asked for certain changes and to just show that how much Nixon supported South Vietnam, he again ordered Operation Linebacker II and threw bombs on Hanoi and Haiphong. 6Bombings however stopped by the orders of Nixon on 15th January 1973 against North Vietnam and finally the time arrived for every one to enter into the Paris Peace Accord of 1973. The Peace Accord of January 15 officially declared the end of United States involvement in Vietnam and a ceasefire was announced both in North and South Vietnam. Prisoners of War in United States were released. This agreement gave the territorial integrity of Vietnam and sought for elections in both North and South Vietnam. The Paris Peace Accord fixed sixty days for the United States to completely recall back their troops.And as said by Peter Church, only this agreement was carried out in true letter and spirit. 7 _________________________ 6 Bragg, 169 7 Church, Peter, A Short History of South-East Asia, (Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, 2006) Bibliography Bragg, Christine, Vietnam, Korea and US Foreign Policy, 1945-75,Oxford: Heinemann Publishers, 2006. Church, Peter, A Short History of South-East Asia, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Simon, Dennis, The War in Vietnam, 1969-1973, (18 March 2008)
Monday, September 16, 2019
Analyses two possible reasons why Michael currently has a centralized structure. A centralized structure is a management structure where decision making is done at higher consolidated levels by those with a broader perspective. In a centralized organization, decisions made by higher management are typically communicated to lower organizational tiers who are then expected to accept and move forward in a way, which follows the higher tier managers' decisions.Michael currently has a centralized structure to keep consistency in he restaurants and maintain a brand image however the restaurant sector is very diverse which means different parts of the I-J require different approaches which would more so benefit the decentralized Structure. Michael is responsible for the organizational structure that reflects from his personality, management style and characteristics.Michael has a wider span of control due to the fact it gives him a bigger influence on what happens within the business theref ore making more of the decisions and generating us access. 2) Ruth believes Enjoy! Should extend its flexible workforce strategy. To what extent do you agree with this view? A workforce strategy is the company's overall approach to maximizing the performance of its workforce by stating clearly the goals, objectives and expectations that are made of the workforce. To what extent does Enjoy! Deed to alter their own flexible workforce strategy. Ruth wants to increase the flexibility of the current plan by employing more part time and temporary contracts that they re hoping will increase their labor turnover. A benefit from having more part time contracts would be that the costs of the business are lowered and the company doesn't have to make a commitment to the employee. Workers are more satisfied and less likely to leave the firm and more likely to speak positively about it.Although a downside to more part time workers would mean less attachment to Enjoy! As they're less likely to spe nd as much time there as a full time employee. Also, they might have less experience doing the job within the firm therefore underperforming in tasks. Ruth wants to focus her costs on the quality of the recruitment agency by using the Hospitality Recruitment Agency who can recognize a gifted candidate when they see one. Enjoy! Always have the opportunity to employ omen full time if they think highly of their performance.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The Hatchie River is the lone staying of course weaving, undammed and unchannelized river of the Lower Mississippi Valley in Tennessee, doing it geographically and biologically important. The river flows through both Mississippi and Tennessee before eventually emptying into the Mississippi River. Hatchie River is fed by many feeders and flows through a comparatively level flood plain. Chemically, the river faces jobs from siltation and pollutants from industry, agribusiness, and other beginnings non easy identifiable. This river Ã¢â¬Ës ecosystem construction is as dynamic and diverse as the workss, animate beings and people that reside in or base on balls through it. This river system, particularly its bottomland hardwood woods, has many maps some of which are wildlife home ground and a biological filter for the copiousness of foods that it carries. Hatchie River is a valuable ecosystem non merely because it exists but because of its importance to scientific discipline and wildlife and is a reminder of what used to be. Though Hatchie has managed to get away channelisation and impounding itself, many of its feeders have non which has led to many concerns affecting deposit, altering land usage and chemical pollutants doing an addition in both habitat loss and hapless H2O quality.A The undermentioned information will explicate the significant importance of Hatchie River as a unique and endangered species. Snaking through parts of Mississippi and Tennessee, the Hatchie River is more than 200 stat mis long ( Ã¢â¬Å" The Nature Conservancy Ã¢â¬ 2013 ) . The headwaters of the Hatchie are located in Mississippi sou'-west of Corinth in Union County and flows in an unreal drainage canal which continues about to the Tennessee State line ( Diehl 2000 ) . A From that point the river flows north and west through McNairy, Hardeman, Haywood, Madison, Tipton and Lauderdale Counties in Tennessee before emptying in the Mississippi River ( Steed 2002 ) . The Tennessee part of this river flows of course and unimpeded through the Gulf Coastal Plain. A The Hatchie River lies within the Southeastern Gulf Coastal Plain ( Nabb 1996 ) . A Harmonizing to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the Hatchie River watershed prevarications within four ecoregions, but most of its length falls within the Northern Hilly Gulf Coastal Plains and Loess Plains ( TDEC 2009 ) . The Northern Hilly Gulf Coastal Plains are characterized by a steeper gradient and a sandier substrate than the Loess Plains which are gently turn overing with sedimentations of loess transcending 50 pess ( TDEC 2009 ) . Soils in this country are classified as Entisols and are prone to eroding and deluging due to the low alleviation and lift of the rivers class ( HNWR 2006, Steed 1979 ) .A A Though the chief channel of the Hatchie River has non undergone channelisation, many of its feeders have. Most of the river Ã¢â¬Ës 36 feeders have been channelized and contribute important sums of deposit ( Ã¢â¬Å" The Nature Conservancy Ã¢â¬ 2013 ) . The hydrolog y of Hatchie River has been affected most by the changes made to its many feeders. Most of Hatchie Ã¢â¬Ës 36 feeders have been channelized for agricultural and flood control intents ( Steed et al 2002 ) . The consequence of the increased deposit burden has led to the chief channel Ã¢â¬Ës decrease in deepness found to be greater than three pess harmonizing to research reported by Elizabeth Nabb ( 1996 ) . As fluctuations in the bed degree of Hatchie River occur, fluctuations in the inundation happenings addition ( Nabb 1996 ) . Changes in the morphology and hydrology of this system non merely impact the river itself but the construction of the ecosystem it supports. A A A A A A A A A A A The ecosystem represented by the Hatchie River is delicate and its morphology, hydrology and chemical science are intertwined in such a manner as to do each and every portion a continuum of a mega-organism. It is impossible to discourse the rivers hydrology without besides turn toing the workss and animate beings that are dependent upon it. Because of this, as with any wetland system, the system Ã¢â¬Ës dynamic nature can non be entirely represented by a individual species of dominant tree or bush. This river system is a combination of many classs of vegetive features while dependant on certain belongingss of the dirt and inundation governments at different degrees of lift and distance from the natural meander of Hatchie River. Studies conducted at Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge ( HNWR ) in Brownsville, Tennessee have shown that flora nowadays in an country is significantly related toA changing grades of streaking and/or gleyingA ( Steed 1979, Steed, Plyler, and Buckner 2002 ) .A In Steeds 1979 survey he indicated that forest screen can be separated into two wide types: hydroseric and mesic. The hydroseric type occurred in countries that remained saturated, sing extended anaerobiotic activity and included communities that were dominated by Tupelo Gum, Bald Cypress or Overcup oak based on increasing grades of gleying respectfully ( Steed 1979 ) . The mesonic type occurred in countries that were at times afloat but dry during the turning season and included assorted communities of Sweet gum, willow oak, cherrybark oak and many others ( Steed 1979 ) .A In add-on, in Steed Ã¢â¬Ës joint research of 2002, he and his spouses indicated that there were definite relationships between dirts and dirt drainage categories, topography, and species of trees ( Steed et al 2002 ) . So the connexion between dirt, H2O and workss becomes evident. What of the animate beings that depend on Hatchie River for their support? A A A A A A A A A A A The Hatchie River is more than dirt, H2O and flora. This alone trace of bottomland hardwoods that one time covered huge countries of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley is home to many animals, common and rare. Volumes could be and hold been written on the many of import maps of the Hatchie River ecosystem and one would be distressed to state which is most important.A As it carries vitalizing foods down its unimpeded channel, the Hatchie deposits them all along its flood plain to organize alone dirts that are some of the richest in America. These foods create chiefly two major types of dirt, Amagon and Falayar, which are extremely productive for many species of bottomland hardwood trees, both land and aquatic workss, and are responsible for fertile croplands that are extremely prized by agribusiness. [ General dirt map Hatchie River Basin study, Tennessee and Mississippi. Writer: United States. Soil Conservation Service.Publisher: Nashville, Tenn. , 1969 ] The Hatch ie Ã¢â¬Ës seasonal implosion therapy has for many 1000s of old ages brought life with its foods to the dirt of the flood plain, maintaining lands as fertile now as even before Native Americans foremost came to this land. Mankind and animate beings have long depended on the Hatchie Ã¢â¬Ës being. Having birthed these exuberant home grounds all along its flow, the Hatchie provides amazing ecological benefits and services to each 1. The hardwood woods, cane interruptions, gangrenes, oxbows, boggy wetlands, and lakes it creates as it meanders are all place to pullulating life. A A major map of this system is wildlife home ground. Because of its singularity, parts of the riverine system have been preserved at both province and national degrees. Hatchie River National Wildlife Refuge, Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge, John Tully Wildlife Management Area and Fort Pillow State Park have all preserved small pieces of this great river and its surrounding landscape ( Nature conservanc y Mississippi river precedence site ) . Hatchie River and its bottomland hardwood woods support many species in many systematic orders. Included in this tremendously diverse group of animate beings, several species are considered to be vulnerable, in demand of direction, threatened, or endangered. The Hatchie Burrowing Crayfish is endemic to an country of merely under 20,000 estates on a individual feeder of the Hatchie River and considered to be critically endangered ( Crandall 2010 ) . The Hatchie River and both National Wildlife Refuges have been designated as one uninterrupted IBA ( Important Bird Area ) by BirdLife International. In this country the Mississippi Kite, Cerulean Warbler, and Swainsons Warbler are species designated as In Need of Management by the province of Tennessee ( www.tnbirds.org ) . The Prothonotary Warbler is a pit squatter in afloat woods and its outstanding genteelness country is within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley ( Prothonotary Warbler Web 2013 ) .A The Swainsons warbler, listed as a high preservation concern by Partners in Flight and on the Audubon Society Ã¢â¬Ës ticker list, has, harmonizing to the Nature Conservancy, made slightly of a rejoinder to the Hatchie River country due to the Restoration of bottomland hardwood woods ( www.tnwatchablewildlife.orgA and the Nature Conservancy ) . Migratory birds utilizing the Mississippi flyway depend on the wetlands and the natural harvests provided by the Hatchie to prolong them as they travel each twelvemonth. Many species of birds, mammals and even insects and reptilians depend on the mast produced by bottomland hardwoods along the Hatchie Ã¢â¬Ës length. [ U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Regional Office, April 2006 hypertext transfer protocol: //digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/document/id/655/rec/13 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fws.gov/southeast/planning/PDFdocuments/HatchieFinal/Hatchie % 20Final % 20CCP.pdf ] A Hatchie River besides holds rare fish like the blue chump and northern madtom and is place to possibly more species of catfish than any other river in the north American continent ( nature.org ) . Though these species belong to different categories of taxonomy, they all have in common the loss of home ground whether it be in the H2O or in the trees or someplace in between. Hatchie Rivers map as wildlife home ground is valuable to these and many other species. That value does non stop with wildlife but continues on to all of those that appreciate in one signifier or another the rareness of the wildlife and the conglobation that is the Hatchie River wetland system. A A A A A A A A A A A What other valuable maps does the Hatchie River perform and how are the benefits realized? Wetlands hold H2O that from extra rain or possibly snowmelt in some countries and so easy let go of it to rivers and watercourses. A Hatchie River serves this map. However, the feeders that drain into the Hatchie have been channelized, there wetland-type countries have been destroyed ensuing in increased H2O speed through those feeders. The consequence is eroding of those stream Bankss which increases the sum of deposit they carry as they enter the chief channel of the Hatchie River. As clip base on ballss, increased siltation produces shoals and in utmost instances valley stoppers ( Diehl 2000 ) . While both of these consequences in altered hydrology of the wetland system, vale stoppers are much more damaging to the bottomland hardwood woods and the river itself. A vale stopper occurs when heavy deposit fills the river channel coercing back-filling across the inundation f ield until a new river channel is realized harmonizing to Diehl mentioning work by Stafford C. Happ in 1975 ( 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Diehl, without control of highland eroding, Hatchie Ã¢â¬Ës flood plain may stop up a fen and a topographic point where hardwoods can non last. Wetlands have varied and legion maps. They purify H2O as it moves through the inundation fields and as this slow motion occurs some of the extra H2O percolates through to the aquifer, reloading it. Many countries depend on this map to provide their citizens with clean imbibing H2O. The filtration of H2O through the inundation plains helps to take drosss such as chemical toxins and extra deposit and in some countries wetlands are developed for that exclusive intent. Some chemicals are taken up by certain wetland workss, efficaciously taking them from the H2O and at the same clip the above-ground parts of these workss assistance in pin downing larger atoms. The Hatchie besides creates many types of recreational , fishing, and runing chances as it flows to the Mississippi. Because of its entreaty to migratory birds, duck huntsmans are drawn to the Hatchie Ã¢â¬Ës wetlands, fishermen come to partake of the many assortments found in its Waterss, cervid and Meleagris gallopavo huntsmans vie for lands along the Hatchie. Hunters and fishermen, every bit good as leghorns, campers, tramps, bird spectators and nature lovers all flock to the Hatchie, making incomes for those who portion in supplying all these Hatchie visitants with entree. The Hatchie provides rich dirts in which local husbandmans raise bumper harvests, cognizing about anything can be good grown in Hatchie dirts. Farm/food animate beings can be grazed on both deep-rooted harvests, natural grasses and hardwood masts. The Hatchie maps as a supplier to worlds, wild and domestic animate beings, aquatic life, birds, reptilians, insects, trees, and workss, and even industry. A A A A A A A A A A A Although the Hatchie has flowed freely and infinitely for 1000s of old ages, it is non without menaces and jobs. The steady rise in deposit from its feeders and from agribusiness, of all time increasing contaminations, altered flow, every bit good as atomization of home grounds and loss of woods are all endangering the very life of the Hatchie. Heavy sediment tonss flow into the Hatchie from most of the river Ã¢â¬Ës 36 feeders. It is this implosion therapy that has brought life in the signifier of foods to the dirt of the flood plain, sing it remains as fertile today as it has been for a thousand old ages, even before the yearss when Native Americans first began populating off this land. However, it is this really implosion therapy that has caused the human population to make inundation control undertakings, convert bottomlands to farms and spread out urban development. The invasion of civilisation has eliminated many full ecosystems in American history, and t he Hatchie is susceptible to the same destiny without sound direction and attention. In the past century, upseting wetland losingss have occurred in the Hatchie wetlands of the Lower Mississippi Valley.A [ hypertext transfer protocol: //designpathmedia.com/twrf/Conservation.cfm? uid=12092520112677465 Tennesse Wildlife Resources Foundation ( TWRF ) ] Hardwood woods have been reduced to 20 % of what they one time were.A Loss of wetlands narrows the cistron pools for migratory birds as some no longer happen ground to halt along the Hatchie to feed or engender ( Bonney et al. , 2000 ) . Chemical contaminations from industry, agribusiness and assorted other beginnings are another job faced by this river. Chemical contaminations were found in the H2O, deposits, and fish of the Hatchie River and included: Organochlorine pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and CUPs ( current-use pesticides ) which include weedkillers like 2,4 D and pesticides like Malathion ( HNWR ) . Mercury was besides detected and like the others was found to be within safe bounds ( HNWR ) .The Hatchie is losing cherished life as a consequence of these major impacts and has seen species of the Lower Mississippi Valley going earnestly threatened, endangered, or nonextant. Already the ruddy wolf and jaguar are gone, and the ivory-bi lledA peckerwood and three warblers that called the Hatchie place are now either critically endangered or genuinely extinct.A It may non be excessively late to change by reversal these jeopardies to the life of the Hatchie, but it will necessitate major preservation attempts, land and H2O direction with these rich home grounds uppermost in head, and better stewardship of this beautiful, rare hoarded wealth that is the Hatchie River and its home grounds. The Hatchie provides all who make usage of its presence with so many vitalizing maps that it deserves our protection to maintain it fluxing free and clean. A A A A A A A A A A A Protecting Hatchie River can non be accomplished by a individual entity or organisation. The continuity of this great wetland system will depend on continued partnerships between organisations of local, province and federal degrees every bit good as private land proprietors, husbandmans and users of the out-of-door infinite provided by Hatchie River. The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control adopted what is calledA the watershed attack to H2O quality and preservation ( Lower Hatchie ) . This attack has brought partnerships on many degrees. The Natural Resources Conservation Service, the United States Geological Survey, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U. S. Army Corp of Engineers are involved on a federal degree harmonizing to the National Wildlife Refuges preservation programs. Federal partnerships provide changing services that enhance eroding control, wildlife direction, preservation attempts, plan ning, planing, building and runing high quality and moderately priced civil plants H2O resource undertakings, care of river navigability, monitoring of inundations and drouths, roll uping extended scientific information, and offering a broad assortment of federally-funded undertakings that conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, and workss and their home grounds, every bit good as, advice to other bureaus and organisations. A On the province degree, TDEC Division of Water Supply, the State Revolving Fund, the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, West Tennessee River Basin Authority, and Mississippi Department of Environmental QualityA A service to assist forestall H2O pollution, supply low-interest loans to metropoliss and counties for effluent intervention, offer grant plans to better H2O quality and educate the populace, aid continue the natural flow of the Hatchie by bettering impaired feeders or job countries in the Hatchie itself, and supply monitoring and informations t o province bureaus. On the local degree, Friends of West Tennessee Refuges, The Nature Conservancy, the Hatchie River Conservancy, The Chickasaw-Shiloh Resource Conservation and Development Council and The Friend of the Hatchie organisation and others provide voluntaries, fundraising, and educational plans to acquire the local populace involved in stewardship of all of the Hatchie Ã¢â¬Ës home grounds. Some of the local spouses have invested in multimillion dollar plans to better H2O quality and halt eroding and to buy lands for saving of bottomlands and wetlands. A A A A A A A A A A A The maps and values of the Hatchie River are countless and unreplaceable, doing the Hatchie cherished by many. Its hydrogeomorphology makes it exceeding as one of a really few natural ecosystems left in America. Though Hatchie River is a wetland system, it is more than a individual home ground. It is a apogee of many that are so closely interlacing as to be identical from each other. Its uniqueness provides home grounds for animate beings that, in some cases, can be found nowhere else. Many obstructions must be overcome in order to continue what remains. Siltation, habitat loss and pollution are elephantine hurdlings but non unsurmountable if bureaus, organisations and the citizens combine forces to continue this invaluable gem of West Tennessee.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Equality is a state men and women will never agree on. Standards for both genders vary when compared. The differences between the genders are clearly shown in The Ramayana. Women are Judged by their beauty. A perfect woman must be beautiful and loyal to her husband. Men are not only Judged by their beauty, but also by their strength. Because women are often considered the weaker sex, men are expected to protect the women. Everything about a woman revolves around her appearance. Women are Judged by their appearances. Beauty is the first aspect a man notices when meeting a woman. Sita is Ã¢â¬Å"a woman of unearthly beauty' (Narayan 76).Rama falls in love at first sight with Sita and Ravana falls in love with the mere description of Sita. This shows how significant a woman's appearance is in The Ramayana. Before anything else is taken into consideration, beauty will always stand first. One's personality is determined by how beautiful one is. It is believed that with beauty, comes good t hings such as loyalty and kindness. The rest of a woman's personality follows through after beauty. Because Sita is beautiful, she is also assumed to be loyal, trustworthy, and polite. After all, everything about a woman comes in a package.Ugly women have different stereotypical traits. Women who are considered ugly are the exact opposite of Sita. Kooni is not a positive influence on any of the characters in The Ramayana. Ã¢â¬Å"Kooni [has a] deformity (Narayan 116). Ã¢â¬ Her hunched back is considered an imperfection, which goes against the stereotypical portrayal of women at the time. As said before, beauty is the root of a woman's personality. Kooni goes against the standard for women at the time, which makes her evil and manipulative. Kooni's outer appearance determines how everyone else sees her as in heir own eyes.The significance in explaining beauty is that everything was based on a woman's beauty. From how they acted to how they treated, everything revolved around how be autiful a woman was. Portrayed as the weaker one, women do not have much ground. Rama immediately rejects Sita after he saves her. She needs to reach the brink of death in order for her to be trusted. Sita Ã¢â¬Å"light[s] a fireÃ¢â¬ ¦ on [the] spot (Narayan 161)Ã¢â¬ and jumps in. Only when the great god of fire presents Sita with words of blessing did Rama welcome her back. This shows how women are never given the benefit of the doubt.Women are always accused of being guilty before innocent. Because men have more power in society, men are the ones who are assumed to be innocent not guilty. Men will always have the upper hand in society. If there was a dispute between a man and a woman, the man would be in favor of winning Just because he is the gender that is more respected by all. Men's power is shown through how well he is able to protect women. It is their duty to protect women. Although Vali's brother is his enemy, Ã¢â¬Å"[he] still wanted to protect and help his wife when h e was gone (Narayan 110). Ã¢â¬ Protecting women is top priorityÃ¢â¬ no matter what the situation is.Vali and Sugreeva hate each other. They are always neck and neck with one another. When it comes to protecting Sugreeva's wife, Vali is able to put his feud between Sugreeva to the side and happily guard Sugreeva's wife. This is significant because it shows how women were more valued in society, but treated with less respect. Men The roles for the different genders in The Ramayana are different. Women are known for their beauty while a man's status is portrayed through how well he can protect a woman. Both relate to the strength and appearance one has on the outside. All other traits follow what is physically seen. The Ramayana The Ramayana is an electrifying piece by Valmiki that exposes the readers to different relevant themes that they can relate to real-life situations. It is imperative to note that the theme is an integral part of any poem since it helps the poet to express the intended lesson, point of view and conclusion. In the poem, the author uses different outright themes, but the outstanding one is heroism. It is ostensibly clear throughout the poem as Rama's belligerent nature in different battles identifies him as a hero and a perfect man. The contrast between good and evil is very clear in the poem as Rama seeks to only do good in everything he undertakes. He is just, generous and a good master of his reactions. From the traits demonstrated by Rama, the greater quality of a hero is being thoughtful and mindful of his judgments, and more importantly, a champion of good deeds. The same is implied in the poem The Thousand and One Nights where Shahrazad is fearless and refuses to be cowed by male authority. She aims to teach the king a lesson, which can be relative to feminist motivation. Even though the two characters' traits sharply contrast one another in the two poems, the similarity between them is that they are heroes in different aspects. In the case of Rama, he seeks to save members of the society by remaining just, whereas Shahrazad is ready to do even evil to save women from their unpleasant husbands. There is a lot that the readers can discern from the poem. Firstly, sometimes, an effect can be pursued through doing good or being extremely harsh, but the question is whether that is necessary. In the case of Shahrazad, being hash would be appropriate since the environment is unfriendly for loyal wives. On the other hand, Rama is a prince and is more sensitive to keep his eyes on Dharma all the times. When Sita is abducted by Ravana, the king of Lanka. In this episode, Rama is more concerned about the matters affecting the society and is willing to oppose the authority when doing harm to the people. On the other hand, Shahrazad is willing to do anything, even harm, to save women from the face of harsh husbands. Therefore, the two characters are considered heroes in the two different pieces because, through them, a greater lesson is learned, a lesson of a perfect duty to save humanity. From the two poems, one can infer a fight to defend and restore the dignity of women, which has been a great concern for the feminist movements. In the two poems, Shahrazad is a representation of women who refuse male chauvinism. She is ready to do anything to ensure that women are not subjected to harsh male authority. On the other hand, Rama is an example of a good man who does good in the society. The readers can learn a lot from these and relate them to the society. The society is marred with harsh rulers who subject their people to pain and suffering through draconian laws. It needs strong heroes like Rama and Shahrazad to install an order that takes care of the less fortunate who experience the wrath of such bad leadership. Therefore the two poems are relevant to be studied in the contemporary society.